Brassinosteroid signaling and application in rice

Because they are tethered in space, plants have to make the most of their local growth environment. In order to grow in an ever-changing environment, plants constantly remodel their shapes. This adaptive attribute requires the orchestration of complex environmental signals at the cellular and organismal levels. A battery of small molecules, classically known as phytohormones, allows plants to change their body plan by using highly integrated signaling networks and transcriptional cascades. Amongst these hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid of plants, influence plant responsiveness to the local environment and exquisitely promote, or interfere with, many aspects of plant development. The molecular circuits that wire steroid signals at the cell surface to the promoters of thousands of genes in the nucleus have been defined in the past decade. This review recapitulates how the transduction of BR signals impacts the temporally unfolding programs of plant growth. First, we summarize the paradigmatic BR signaling pathway acting primarily in cellular expansion. Secondly, we describe the current wiring diagram and the temporal dynamics of the BR signal transduction network. And finally we provide an overview of how key players in BR signaling act as molecular gates to transduce BR signals onto other signaling pathways.

The Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) consist of five members, SERK1 to SERK5, of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase subfamily II (LRR-RLK II). SERK3 was named BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) due to its direct interaction with the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1 in vivo, while SERK4 has also been designated as BAK1-Like 1 (BKK1) for its functionally redundant role with BAK1. Here we provide genetic and biochemical evidence to demonstrate that SERKs are absolutely required for early steps in BR signaling. Overexpression of four of the five SERKs-SERK1, SERK2, SERK3/BAK1, and SERK4/BKK1-suppressed the phenotypes of an intermediate BRI1 mutant, bri1-5. Overexpression of the kinase-dead versions of these four genes in the bri1-5 background, on the other hand, resulted in typical dominant negative phenotypes, resembling those of null BRI1 mutants. We isolated and generated single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants and analyzed their phenotypes in detail. While the quadruple mutant is embryo-lethal, the serk1 bak1 bkk1 triple null mutant exhibits an extreme de-etiolated phenotype similar to a null bri1 mutant. While overexpression of BRI1 can drastically increase hypocotyl growth of wild-type plants, overexpression of BRI1 does not alter hypocotyl growth of the serk1 bak1 bkk1 triple mutant. Biochemical analysis indicated that the phosphorylation level of BRI1 in serk1 bak1 bkk1 is incapable of sensing exogenously applied BR. As a result, the unphosphorylated level of BES1 has lost its sensitivity to the BR treatment in the triple mutant, indicating that the BR signaling pathway has been completely abolished in the triple mutant. These data clearly demonstrate that SERKs are essential to the early events of BR signaling.

BR might reveal to have a prominent interest in the role of horticultural crops. Based on extensive research BR has the ability to improve the quantity and quality of horticultural crops and protect plants against many stresses that can be present in the local environment. [16] [17] With the many advances in technology dealing with the synthesis of more stable synthetic analogues and the genetic manipulation of cellular BR activity, using BR in the production of horticultural crops has become a more practical and hopeful strategy for improving crop yields and success. [16]

Brassinosteroid signaling and application in rice

brassinosteroid signaling and application in rice

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