Explain how peptide hormones and steroid hormones affect the metabolism of the cell

Several studies have shown acute peripheral administration of PYY 3-36 inhibits feeding of rodents and primates. Other studies on Y2R- knockout mice have shown no anorectic effect on them. These findings indicate PYY 3-36 has an anorectic (losing appetite) effect, which is suggested to be mediated by Y2R. PYY-knockout female mice increase in body weight and fat mass. PYY-knockout mice, on the other hand, are resistant to obesity , but have higher fat mass and lower glucose tolerance when fed a high-fat diet, compared to control mice. Thus, PYY also plays a very important role in energy homeostasis by balancing food intake. [9] PYY oral spray was found to promote fullness. [14] Viral gene therapy of the salivary glands resulted in long-term intake reduction. [15]

In the paper, titled "The Foldamer Hypothesis for the growth and sequence-differentiation of prebiotic polymers," the researchers used computer simulations to study how random sequences of water-loving, or polar, and water-averse, or hydrophobic, polymers fold and bind together. They found these random sequence chains of both types of polymers can collapse and fold into specific compact conformations that expose hydrophobic surfaces, thus serving as catalysts for elongating other polymers. These particular polymer chains, referred to as "foldamer" catalysts, can work together in pairs to grow longer and develop more informational sequences.

Explain how peptide hormones and steroid hormones affect the metabolism of the cell

explain how peptide hormones and steroid hormones affect the metabolism of the cell

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