The gains made by athletes in uncontrolled observations have been much more impressive. Weight gains of thirty or forty pounds, coupled with thirty percent increases in strength, are not unusual. Such case studies lack credibility because of the absence of scientific controls. However, it would be foolish to completely disregard such observations because the "subjects" have been highly trained and motivated see the articles on pharmacology of sport and sports medicine in the countries of the former Soviet Union for more information on anabolic steroids.
Pregabalin (Lyrica) is a new antiepileptic drug that is active in animal seizure models. Pregabalin is approved in US and Europe for adjunctive therapy of partial seizures in adults, and also has been approved for the treatment of pain from diabetic neuropathy or post-herpetic neuralgia in adults. Recently, it has been approved for treatment of anxiety disorders in Europe. Pregabalin is structurally related to the antiepileptic drug gabapentin and the site of action of both drugs is similar, the alpha2-delta (alpha2-delta) protein, an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. Pregabalin subtly reduces the synaptic release of several neurotransmitters, apparently by binding to alpha2-delta subunits, and possibly accounting for its actions in vivo to reduce neuronal excitability and seizures. Several studies indicate that the pharmacology of pregabalin requires binding to alpha2-delta subunits, including structure-activity analyses of compounds binding to alpha2-delta subunits and pharmacology in mice deficient in binding at the alpha2-delta Type 1 protein. The preclinical findings to date are consistent with a mechanism that may entail reduction of abnormal neuronal excitability through reduced neurotransmitter release. This review addresses the preclinical pharmacology of pregabalin, and also the biology of the high affinity binding site, and presumed site of action.
In some literature articles, the term mechanism of action and mode of action (MoA) are used interchangeably; typically referring to the way in which the drug interacts and produces a medical effect. However, in actuality, a mode of action describes functional or anatomical changes, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance.  This differs from a mechanism of action, as it is a more specific term that focuses on the interaction between the drug itself and an enzyme or receptor and its particular form of interaction, whether through inhibition , activation , agonism , or antagonism . Furthermore, the term mechanism of action is the main term that is primarily used in pharmacology, whereas mode of action will more often appear in the field of microbiology or certain aspects of biology.