Oral corticosteroids used for asthma

Corticosteroids, including EMFLAZA, readily cross the placenta. Adverse developmental outcomes, including orofacial clefts (cleft lip, with or without cleft palate ) and intrauterine growth restriction , and decreased birth weight, have been reported with maternal use of corticosteroids, including EMFLAZA, during pregnancy. Some epidemiologic studies report an increased risk of orofacial clefts from about 1 per 1000 infants to 3 to 5 per 1000 infants; however, a risk for orofacial clefts has not been observed in all studies. Intrauterine growth restriction and decreased birth weight appear to be dose-related; however, the underlying maternal condition may also contribute to these risks (see Data ). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the . general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Certain drugs such as troleandomycin (TAO), erythromycin ( Ery-Tab , EryPed 200), and clarithromycin ( Biaxin ) and ketoconazole ( Nizoral ) can reduce the ability of the liver to metabolize (breakdown) corticosteroids and this may lead to an increase in the levels and side effects of corticosteroids in the body. On the other hand, phenobarbital, ephedrine , phenytoin ( Dilantin ), and rifampin ( Rifadin , Rimactane ) may reduce the blood levels of corticosteroids by increasing the breakdown of corticosteroids by the liver. This may necessitate an increase of corticosteroid dose when they are used in combination with these drugs.

  • Prevent asthma symptoms from occurring
  • Can reduce and/or prevent:
    • Inflammation and scarring in the airways
    • Tightening of the muscle bands around the airways (bronchospasm)
  • Do not show immediate results, but work slowly over time
  • Should be taken daily, even when you are not having symptoms
  • Should NOT be used to relieve immediate asthma symptoms.

Back to top A Note about Long-Term Controller Medicines in Children According to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program at the National Institutes of Health, long-term controller medicines should be considered when infants or young children have had three or more episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months and who are at an increased risk of developing asthma because of their own or their parents' history of allergic diseases.

They also recommend long-term controller medicines for children who need short-acting bronchodilators (rescue medicines) more than twice a week or have had severe asthma symptoms less than six weeks apart. Without a controller medicine, the underlying inflammation will continue to cause more asthma symptoms.

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Compared with the particulate steroid solutions, dexamethasone sodium phosphate had particles that were significantly smaller than red blood cells, had the least tendency to aggregation, and had the lowest density. These characteristics should significantly reduce the risk of embolic infarcts or prevent them from occurring after intra-arterial injection. Until shown otherwise in clinical studies, interventionalists might consider using dexamethasone or another corticosteroid preparation with similar high solubility and negligible particle size when performing epidural injections.

Oral corticosteroids used for asthma

oral corticosteroids used for asthma

Compared with the particulate steroid solutions, dexamethasone sodium phosphate had particles that were significantly smaller than red blood cells, had the least tendency to aggregation, and had the lowest density. These characteristics should significantly reduce the risk of embolic infarcts or prevent them from occurring after intra-arterial injection. Until shown otherwise in clinical studies, interventionalists might consider using dexamethasone or another corticosteroid preparation with similar high solubility and negligible particle size when performing epidural injections.

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