The possible effect of dietary fat content and the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S-ratio) on serum sex hormones was studied in 30 healthy male volunteers. The customary diet of the subjects, which supplied 40% of energy as fat (mainly from animal sources, P/S-ratio ) was replaced for a 6 weeks period by a practically isocaloric experimental diet containing significantly less fat (25% of energy) with a higher P/S-ratio () and other environmental factors were stabilized. Serum testosterone and 4-androstenedione decreased from +/- nmol/l to +/- nmol/l, (SEM, P less than ) and from +/- nmol/l to +/- nmol/l (SEM, P less than ), respectively. These changes were paralleled by a reduction in serum free (non-protein bound) testosterone (P less than ) suggesting a possible change in biological activity. During the low fat period a significant negative correlation between serum prolactin and androgens was observed. All the changes in androgen levels were reversible. With the exception of a small but non-significant decrease in serum estradiol-17 beta, the other hormone parameters were practically unaffected by the dietary manipulation. Our results indicate that in men a decrease in dietary fat content and an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids reduces the serum concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone and free testosterone. The mechanism and importance of this phenomenon is discussed in the light of epidemiological and experimental data.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger.  Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.
There are also some who complain of joint pain when using Winstrol. As a steroid that does not aromatize there will be no water retention but the “dry feeling” may not be what many think it is. Most who use the steroid will be physique athletes or gym rats during a cutting phase. They will also typically add it into a plan late in the diet once they’re already lean. Typically, when you become very lean, bodybuilding lean, this makes the joints a little uncomfortable. With or without Winstrol this discomfort could potentially exist. As for pro athletes who have nearly every last steroid at their disposal, remember, if Winstrol weren’t effective in competitive sports so many athletes wouldn’t make it a primary and favorite choice. In fact, the combo of Winstrol with low doses of Nandrolone is a very common stack among many athletes, and this stack will greatly eliminate any potential joint discomfort should it exist.