Type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus begins as a syndrome of insulin resistance. That is, target tissues fail to respond appropriately to insulin. Typically, the onset of this disease is in adulthood. Despite monumental research efforts, the precise nature of the defects leading to type II diabetes have been difficult to ascertain, and the pathogenesis of this condition is plainly multifactorial. Obesity is clearly a major risk factor, but in some cases of extreme obesity in humans and animals, insulin sensitivity is normal. Because there is not, at least initially, an inability to secrete adequate amounts of insulin, insulin injections are not useful for therapy. Rather the disease is controlled through dietary therapy and hypoglycemic agents.
A possible taste receptor for fat, CD36 , has been identified.  CD36 has been localized to the circumvallate and foliate papillae , which are present in taste buds ,  and research has shown that the CD36 receptor binds long chain fatty acids .  Differences in the amount of CD36 expression in human subjects was associated with their ability to taste fats,  creating a case for the receptor's relationship to fat tasting. Further research into the CD36 receptor could be useful in determining the existence of a true fat-tasting receptor.